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Influencing factors of flame retardant HIPS relative tracking index Abstract: The effects of resin types, flame retardants, fillers and processing technology on the relative tracking index of flame retardant high impact strength polystyrene (ene HIPS) were studied. The results show that in order to increase the relative tracking index, it is necessary to consider both the raw material and the process. Key words: High impact polystyrene; Flame retardancy; Comparative tracking index High impact strength polystyrene (HIPS) is polystyrene modified with polybutadiene rubber. Because of its easy injection and extrusion molding, as well as relatively low ...
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Tracing carbon is one of the pivotal components if we want to address the sustainability challenge. Although we often aim to recycle the used macromolecular chains, a quantified study defines the scope of the recycling and peeks into the areas of improvement. For instance, recycling a material that loses half of its carbon content from collecting the waste material till feeding it into the recycling pathway is of no economic value. Therefore, it is essential to track carbon for each molecular building block, including its source and destination. Dr Sander, from ETH Zurich, experimented with poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) to analyze the decay ...
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I still remember the news on Nov 1, 2019, where the newspaper headline highlighted that the residents of New Delhi were submerged under a thick layer of smog, causing severe respiratory problems along with headaches and teary eyes. The air quality index touched 530, which is tagged as ‘severe plus’ or ’emergency level.’ Moreover, the particulate matter’s quantification was cited to be   500 μg/m³   (PM 10) and   300 μg/m³   (PM 2.5), which raises the question ‘if this is the current scenario, where are we heading to?’ I remember the Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority of the National Capital Region had declared the incident ...
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We often attribute global warming to be a recent event, which peaked post-2000s. However, recent studies say ‘Its Not.’ In fact, the second most destructive mass extinction in the history of the Earth’s timeline is previewed to be triggered by global warming. The recent communication from Cardiff University, UK have tethered a massive extinction with an alarming concern for the first time, which should give us an insight on the question that we ask, ‘What shall happen if Global warming peaks?’. The research group lead by Dr. Andrew Kerr claims that the inferences serve as a missing piece that connects the broader picture of Earth’s History and the environmental ...
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The realms of   histopathology   still face numerous challenges owing to the difficulty in interpreting the slides by the pathologists. Furthermore, the techniques like microscopic studies do not allow the detection of specific genomic driven mutations, especially in untraced locations (such as subcellular structures of the cells). If we consider using biomarkers, even then, we need specialized instruments or specific complementary setups to integrate the use of biomarkers- which often is not accessible ( in a country like India).  The combination of these problems eventually led to the growth in the use of machine learning to use label-free cell-based ...
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Superhydrophobic substances have recently gained the spotlight because of their potential to be employed in a variety of smart applications such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, heat reduction, drag minimization, and oil-water separation.  The traditional technique to prepare superhydrophobic materials is by amalgamating surface micro/nanostructures with low energy surface chemistries. However, material prepared via this route has various drawbacks such as low durability as they are more exposed to chemical/mechanical erosion. To overcome this difficulty, the self-healable superhydrophobic surface is fabricated that can autonomously restore the surface phenomena ...
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The recent years have experienced a   burgeoning growth   in the development of statistical and machine learning within the domains of materials science and polymer chemistry. Interestingly, or rather unnoticeably, the concept of artificial intelligence was prevalent in the material science community for the past couple of decades. For instance, more than 15 years ago, a   symposium proceeding   conducted by the Materials Research Society had a session titled “Combinatorial and Artificial Intelligence Methods in Materials Science.” The trend has evolved recently with contemporary topics like high throughput screening, particle simulation accelerator, ...
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The United States Congress, in the year 1960, voted to draft an act that later evolved into existence as the Clean Air Act in 1970 ( US Environmental Protection Agency , 2012), owing to the escalation of the dense smog in the US metropolitan cities. Thus, Section 109 of the Clean Air act compelled the authorities to revise the emission standards for on- and off-road motor vehicles in the same year. The framework and the protocol circumscribing the carbon monoxide emission were introduced in 1971, with the collaborative support from the   United States National Ambient Air Quality Standard   (NAAQS). Owing to the metamorphosis of carbon monoxide pollution, ...
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The industrial Internet of Things (IoT) can help us combat climate changes. The adaptations necessarily measure the impact of the simultaneous effect of the industrial consequences along with the human activities via the predefined sensors that can respond to multiple drifting parameters ranging from air to the water quality. Furthermore, the algorithms can also predict the indirect and the supplementary effects which stream from the primary impacts of climate change.  Alex Gkuhak, the head of technology (IoT), says, “The internet of things is the digital skin of our planet. By measuring the real state of the world through sensors, we become aware of existing ...
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Recent articles claim that the flow of the Colorado River is gradually turning to be unsteady due to the combined effects of global warming and climatic variation. The celebrated River, which also serves as the primary source of water for millions of Americans have reported having been drying up accelerating the issues of severe water shortages. The advanced numerical modeling, coupled with various simulation trials, has visualized the shift in the pathway of how the 1450 mile long river out-flux is changing. The primary reason behind the change in the pattern is credited to the human-induced global warming effects. The emissions of a higher volume of the ...
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How many of us afraid of cockroaches? Or how many of us love to post a beautiful photo with a butterfly? I do! However, I would strongly advise the readers to fulfill your dream of taking a picture with the butterflies, since perhaps you won’t ever get to see a butterfly ever. Various environmentalists and ecologists are introducing a new terminology in the scientific community known as ‘unnoticed insect apocalypse.’ The term is extracted from a report which suggests that half of the diversified insects are already lost since 1970 , and the rest is on the verge of extinction, primarily due to the way how we treat them.  The report stated that more than 40% ...
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The Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar on Sunday said that India and Norway shall coordinate with each other to put pressure on all countries regarding the climate changes and its actions, which shall, in turn, be followed up with the promised financial development in the developing nations. On the   13 th   Conference of Parties   (COP 13), the Norwegian Climate and Environment Minister Sveinung Rotevatn revealed, “We have agreed upon working jointly with Norway on the issues including the development of relevant technology and create pressure for quick action on all countries. We also agreed upon strengthening our bond so that we can have joint ...
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Imagine you are at your favorite non-vegetarian restaurant on your birthday with your friends to have your treasured Mutton Special Biriyani with Mutton Kasha. You flip open the menu card to find that the restaurant only has items that have a green dot beside them. You continue flipping the pages to search for your favorite non-vegetarian dishes, but unfortunately, you do not find a single dish with a red dot beside it. What do you do next? You put some weird reviews on their website along with writing long posts on Facebook saying that the restaurant, which used to be famous for its meat kebabs and Biriyani, is now selling vegetarian food, which is unacceptable. ...
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A famous Pakistani-born economist,   Mahbub ul Haq , once said that people are the wealth of a nation. The phrase emerged to be one of the most exciting contexts to be prevalent in the realms of the twenty-first century. Originating then, Mahbub ul Haq, along with the Indian Economist   Amartya Sen , drafted the first Human Development Report in the year 1990. According to a report by the United Nations Development Programme, India ranked 129 among 189 countries in the 2019 human development index. The primary goal of the draft was to investigate ways on how humans may evolve together with the science, economy, policy, and sustainability to ensure ...
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For the anthropogenic pollutants, oceans turn out to be the final destination. In this context, microfibers that are disposed of from synthetic garments and apparel products add up to make this problem even worse. Various human accounts lead to the percolation of these microfibers in the river biome, which ultimately makes their way to the oceans. A research carried out by Miller and his team in the year 2017 claimed that approximately 121,465 acrylic, 82,672 polyester, and 22,992 poly-cotton microfibers are disposed to oceans on a single laundry wash. The research further investigated that around 64,000 pounds of microfibers are released into the ocean in ...
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The economic assessments, in the recent era, sustainability have witnessed the introduced the term ' bioeconomy ' to accelerate the economic strategy, particularly in the area of food security and standards.  An increase in the usage of biomass for bioenergy may drift the food availability to scarcity, and drain the present bloom of the economy. Additionally, the transition to bioeconomy shall result in agricultural growth, energy security serving rural economic development, and employment in the developing countries. The industrial revolution has shown us that fossil fuel tunes to be one of the crucial factors in shaping our economy. The burgeoning price ...
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Interestingly the word 'circular economy' was not coined by any famous personalities. However, the idea emerged from a book written by Boulding (1996), who had proposed that four walls bounded Earth with "limited assimilative capacity and as such the economy and environment must coexist in equilibrium." This perception used to be an integral part of the school textbooks since its advent. With the evolution of the teaching parameters and the interception from environmental economics, clean chemistry, industrial economy, green chemistry, regenerative design, the idea of this closed-loop economy began to emerge. However, several theories claim that the origin of ...
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The Worldwide Pollution Control Association published the recent report in which they cited that the World uses around 5 trillion plastic bags every year . The amount of plastic that ultimately accumulates in the water bodies including lakes and rivers sums up to approximately 13 million tons. Amidst of all these figures, India alone is one of the largest consumers of plastic using almost 50% of the worldwide single-use plastic production. Every household in India registers for more than 10% of the total waste that is accumulated every day. Although the production rate of plastics in India has touched nearly 16% as compared to China (10%) and The United ...
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The World Health Organization, in the year 2018, reported that the scientific community is much worried about the medical anomalies that have been arising due to the extreme climate change issues. The recent scientific reports have inferred that the global climatic drift induces several calamities like ozone layer depletion, pollution, unrestricted urbanization and soil degradation which ultimately affect all the living forms on our planet (As discussed in the  Paris agreement, 2015 ).  The researchers have classified the three major categories which frame the climatic changes-global warming, drift in the precipitation behavior and the occurrences of ...
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The black plastics are a genre of plastic materials which are often incorporated with a carbon black or allied components, primarily to mask the disadvantages found in the virgin plastics. Apart from undermining the disadvantages, a trace amount of carbon black may yield a higher solvent resistance and efficient ultraviolet stability. The properties may be tuned in accordance with the end-use application by monitoring the size of the carbon particles or by influencing the dispersion of the filler particles in the matrix. However, as these plastics posses various projections of unique properties, they turn out to be one of the deadliest threats to the environment. ...
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